طراحی یک روش الگوگذاری دیجیتال خود ترمیم جهت احراز اصالت اسناد چاپی و دستنویس الکترونیکی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیئت علمی گروه کامپیوتر، دانشکده مهندسی، دانشگاه صنعتی خاتم الانبیاء بهبهان، خوزستان

2 استادیارگروه برق-الکترونیک، دانشکده مهندسی، دانشگاه صنعتی خاتم الانبیاء بهبهان، ایران

10.30481/lis.2020.235473.1727

چکیده

هدف: پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی فعالیت­‌های انجام شده در خصوص الگوگذاری دیجیتال اسناد و متون به منظور اثبات اصالت اسناد و حفاظت حق نشر و ارائه یک مدل جدید الگوگذاری دیجیتال متون فارسی چاپی و دستنویس با قابلیت تشخیص جعل سند و اصلاح تغییرات انجام شد.
روش شناسی: این پژوهش از نوع کاربردی است. برای شبیه­‌سازی الگوریتم از 20 متن دستنویس فارسی و 35 متن چاپی استفاده شد. در الگوریتم پیشنهادی با استفاده از اطلاعات نقاط تصویر و ترکیب آن با یک کلید مخفی، الگوی دیجیتال تولید و در تصویر متنی ذخیره شد. سپس تصویر مورد حملات تعمدی قرار گرفته و الگوی پنهان شده در متن بازیابی گردید. در نهایت با توجه به قابلیت خود ترمیمی روش، نواحی جعل شده تصحیح و سند به شکل اولیه بازگردانده شد.
یافته‌­ها: دقت روش پیشنهادی در تشخیص و تصحیح نواحی جعل شده بر حسب دو معیار دقت تشخیص (TDA) و دقت ترمیم (TRA) محاسبه شد. الگوریتم در حالت میانگین قادر به شناسایی نقاط دستکاری شده با دقت 82/93 درصد و تصحیح و بازیابی تغییرات با دقت 27/92 درصد بود. نامحسوس بودن الگو بر حسب مقیاس PSNR برابر با 18/40 دسی بل به دست آمد.
نتیجه­‌گیری: نتایج حاصل از اندازه­گیری عددی دقت مدل پیشنهادی و همچنین نتایج شهودی حاکی از کارایی مناسب آن است. الگوی ادغامی به صورت نامحسوس و با حفظ کیفیت بصری اسناد درج می­‌گردد و برای تمامی متون دستنویس و چاپی الکترونیکی و برای کتابخانه­‌های دیجیتال، آموزش الکترونیک و دولت الکترونیک قابل پیاده‌‌سازی و اجرا می‌­باشد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Self-recovery Digital Watermarking Approach for Tamper Detection of Handwritten and Printed Electronic Documents

نویسندگان [English]

  • Azadeh Bastani 1
  • Esmaeel Fatemi Behbahani 2
1 Faculty member of engineering- Behbahan khatam alanbia university - Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of electrical engineering,Faculty of engineering, Behbahan Khatam alanbia University of Technology ,Behbahan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Objective: The aim of this study is to present a brief discussion of the digital image watermarking for texts in order to prove the documents authentication and copyright protection and to introduce a new method of digital watermarking of printed and handwritten Persian documents image for tamper detection and recovery.
Methodology: This paper is based on an applied research.In this study, 20 Persian manuscripts and 35 printed texts were used to simulate the algorithm. In the proposed algorithm, using the information of the image pixels and combining it with a hidden key, we produced the digital watermark and embedded it in the text image. We then intentionally attacked the image and extracted the hidden watermark in the text. Finally, due to the self-recovery capability of the method, the tampered areas were detected and the document was restored to its original form.
Findings: In all 55 test images, separate watermark were embedded according to the proposed algorithm. To evaluate proposed system the three types of attacks includes adding, removing and updating, 30 random images were selected. In 20 images, all three types of manipulation were applied. Then the watermark was extracted and the results were studied. The accuracy of proposed method in detecting and correcting tampered areas was calculated according to two metrics: Tamper Detection Accuracy (TDA) and Tamper Recognition Accuracy (TRA). The algorithm was able to identify manipulated areas with an accuracy of 93.82 percent and correct and recover changes with an accuracy of 92.27 percent. It is important to note that the results obtained are based on the number of correctly identified bits. Therefore, the accuracy of less than 100 percent does not mean inability to detect some manipulated areas; Rather, as can be deduced from the intuitive results, this means that despite the correct diagnosis of the tampered area, only some pixels of that area have not been correctly detected or recovered and therefore do not have a negative effect on the final tamper proofing. For imperceptibility test, PSNR value is estimated. The average value of PSNR in the suggested method is 40.18 dB.
Conclusion: Determining the documents authenticity without the availability of the original documents is one of the main necessities. Digital watermarking is one of the most powerful tools for document authentication and protection of copyright. Our proposed method has two special features that are considered to be its advantages over other methods. The first feature is the ability to work with all kinds of Persian text images. In addition to the ability to run on printed texts, it is also possible to model in handwritten texts as well as the combination of text and image. Another advantage is good rate of tamper detection and the ability to self-recovery of tampered images. The numerical and intuitive results indicate the efficiency of proposed scheme and so can be implemented for all handwritten and electronic printed texts. Therefore, this method can be used to protect the security of printed and handwritten documents in digital libraries, e-learning, e-government and any electronic document exchange system.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • digital watermarking
  • Document Images
  • Tamper Detection
  • Tamper Recovery
باستانی، آزاده (۱۳۹۸). الگوگذاری ایمن و با ظرفیت بالا در تصاویر دیجیتال با استفاده از گشتاورهای چبیشف، مقاله ارائه شده در سومین کنفرانس بین المللی محاسبات نرم، رودسر، دانشگاه گیلان.
صفدری، طاهره؛ لطیف، علی محمد (1395). ارائه یک روش جدید جهت پنهان نگاری اطلاعات در فایل متنی فارسی، پژوهش‌های حفاظتی ـ امنیتی دانشگاه جامع امام حسین(ع)، 5(18)، 43-59.
مشوش، زینب؛ دانیالی، حبیب الله (۱۳۹۱). نهان نگاری برگشت پذیر تصاویر دیجیتال با قابلیت حفاظت از کپی رایت و تشخیص تغییر تصویر نهان نگاری شده، مقاله ارائه شده در نهمین کنفرانس بین‌المللی انجمن رمز ایران، تبریز، انجمن رمز ایران.
یزدانی، وحید؛ موسی، فلاح خورسند (1396). مخفی کردن اطلاعات در تصاویر متنی با استفاده از پیکسل‌های موجود روی لبه‌های حروف فارسی، دو ماهنامه نخبگان علوم و مهندسی، 2(2).
References
Alahmad, M. A., Alshaikhli, I., & Alduwaikh, A. E. (2013). A New Fragile Digital Watermarking Technique for a PDF Digital Holy Quran, International Conference on Advanced Computer Science Applications and Technologies, Kuching, 250-253.
Alattar, A. M., & Alattar, O. M. (2004). Watermarking Electronic Text Documents Containing Justified Paragraphs and Irregular Line Spacing, Proceedings of SPIE, 5306, 685-695.
Alginahi, Y. M., Kabir N., & Tayan, O. (2013). An enhanced Kashida-based watermarking approach for Arabic text-documents, International Conference on Electronics, Computer and Computation (ICECCO), Ankara, 301-304.
Al-Haj, A., & Farfoura, M. (2019). Providing Security for E-Government Document Images Using Digital Watermarking in the Frequency Domain, 5th International Conference on Information Management (ICIM), Cambridge, United Kingdom, 77-81.
Atallah M. J., Raskin, V., & Hempelmann, F. & et al. (2003). Natural Language Watermarking and Tamperproofing, Petitcolas F.A.P. (eds) Information Hiding, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 2578, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
Bastani, A. (2019). Robust and high capacity digital image watermarking using chebychev moments, International conference on soft computing, Guilan, Rudsar. (in Persian)
Chetan, K. R., & Nirmala, S. (2017). An intelligent fragile watermarking scheme based on contourlets for effective detection, localization and recovery of tampered regions in handwritten document images, International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics (ICACCI), Udupi, 405-410.
Chetan, K. R., & Nirmala, S. (2018). Intelligent Multiple Watermarking Schemes for the Authentication and Tamper Recovery of Information in Document Image, Choudhary R., Mandal J., Bhattacharyya D. (eds) Advanced Computing and Communication Technologie. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, 562, Springer, Singapore
Chetan, K. R., & Shivananda, N. (2014). A new fragile watermarking approach for tamper detection and recovery of document images, International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics (ICACCI), New Delhi, 1494-1498.
Daraee, F., & Mozaffari, S. (2013). Watermarking in Binary Document Images using Fractal Codes, Pattern Recognition Letters, 35, 120-129.
Davarzani, R., & Yaghmaie, K. (2009). Farsi Text Watermarking Based on Character Coding, International Conference on Signal Processing Systems, Singapore, 152-156.
Khodami, A., & Yaghmaie, K. (2006). Persian Text Watermarking, Advances in Multimedia Information Processing, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 4261, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 927-934.
Kim, Y., Moon, K., & Oh, I. (2003). A Text Watermarking Algorithm based on Word Classification and Inter word Space Statistics, Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition, 775-779.
Kumar, A. (2020). A Review on Implementation of Digital Image Watermarking Techniques Using LSB and DWT, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, 933,595-602
Kumar, S., Basant, K., Mayank, D., & Anand, M. (2015). Multiple watermarking on medical images using selective discrete wavelet transform coefficients, Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics, 5, 1–8.
Laouamer, L. & O. Tayan. (2018). Performance Evaluation of a Document Image Watermarking Approach With Enhanced Tamper Localization and Recovery, IEEE Access, 6, 26144-26166.
Moshavesh, Z., & Daniali, H. (2012). Reversible digital image steganography for copyright protection and tamper detection, International Conference onIranian Security Community, available at https//www.civilica.com/Paper-ISCC09-ISCC09_031.html (in Persian)
Safdari, T. & Latif, A. (2016). A new method for Information Hiding in Persian text file, Journal of Protection and Security, 5(18), 43-59. (in Persian)
Singh, A. K., Dave, M., & Mohan, A. (2014). Hybrid Technique for Robust and Imperceptible Image Watermarking in DWT–DCT–SVD Domain, Natl. Acad. Sci. Lett. 37, 351–358.
Shirali-Shahreza, M., & Shirali-Shahreza, M. (2006). A New Approach to Persian/Arabic Text Steganography, Proceedings of 5th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Computer and Information Science, 4(11), 1692-1698.
Yazdani, V., Doostari, M. A., & Yazdani, H. (2013). A New Method to Persian Text Watermarking Using Curvaceous Letters, Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research, 3(4), 125-131
Yazdani, V., & Fallah khorsand, M. (2017). A New Method to Persian Text Watermarking Using Curvaceous Letters, Journal of Science and Engineering Elites, 2(2). (in Persian)
Yu, Z., & Liu, X. (2009). A New Digital Watermarking Scheme Based on Text, International Conference on Multimedia Information Networking and Security, Hubei, 138-140.