نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
استادیار پژوهشی و مشاور علمی سازمان اسناد و کتابخانه ملی ایران. تهران، ایران.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate the characteristics of arrays and decorations in the manuscripts of the Qajar period in the in-text section and to study the patterns and colors widely used in the manuscripts of this period.
Methodology: The method of this research is descriptive-analytical. In this regard, first, the typographic characteristics of selected array pages are described. And inductively, common features are enumerated and analyzed. By purposeful sampling method, 77 art manuscripts with a scribe and writing date from Qajar period were selected from the exquisite manuscripts of the National Library. Notably, 34 sample images of these manuscripts are presented in this research.
Findings: Qajar illumination has continued the Safavid style with the difference that the congressional margin is observed with a regular rhythm and large head-pieces. Qajar book decoration style has a special place as a coherent and school style in Iranian painting. And it has all the features (property) of a thematic and applied education of a painting school. Basically, the art of book decoration was mostly dependent on the court. And kings, princes, and local rulers were the most important clients of works of art and sponsors of art.
Half of the studied Qurans have four or two pages with arrays in the opening papers (containing a list of chapters and prayers before recitation). The opening pages of all manuscripts of the Quran and prayer books and 76 percent of the literary books and 90 percent of the selected scientific manuscripts have head-pieces and inscriptions. In all Qurans, there are two opening pages and in the other manuscript, there is an opening page with a head-pieces and inscription. Most of the design of the head-pieces is the same as the dome or altar pattern. Ornate colored flowers have been used extensively in the text of gilding and sometimes in the layout of the head-pieces. The use of Arabesque in gilding the opening pages of the manuscripts under study is less varied. The flowers and leaves of Khatai are abundantly seen in the arrays of the opening pages of selected manuscripts. The purity and radiance of the colors used in the arrays of these books has created a kind of freshness and radiance. All Qurans and prayer books and 35 percent of literary books and 50 percent of selected scientific manuscripts have array margins on the opening pages. In the margins of the gilded and jeweled of the books, various types of Khatai flowers and leaves and Arabesque motifs are drawn on a golden or azure background and in some samples on the paper itself. In the inscriptions of this period, Arabesque motifs are mostly designed in the form of frames or headbands, and the various thorns of the inscription are filled with Khatai motifs and small flowers.